Have you ever wondered what it would take to move a heavy object from one place to another? Would it require brute strength and a lot of muscle power? Or is there a more efficient way to go about it? The answer lies in the force applied over a period of time – also known as work.

Work involves applying force to an object and moving it over a certain distance. The amount of work done depends on the amount of force applied and the distance covered. This concept is essential in fields like physics, engineering, and even exercise science.

Understanding how work is calculated can help us accomplish tasks with less effort and more efficiency. By applying force strategically over a period of time, we can achieve our goals without burning ourselves out. So, the next time you need to lift something heavy or run a lap around the field, remember the importance of work and how you can use it to your advantage.

## Types of Forces

Forces are simply described as push or pull that can change an object’s motion or state of rest. The amount of force applied determines the object’s acceleration. The force applied over a period of time is called as work. Here are the different types of forces:

**Gravitational force:**This is a force that pulls objects towards each other as a result of their masses. The gravitational force between two objects increases when their masses increase and decrease when the distance between them increases.**Frictional force:**This force exists between two surfaces that are in contact with each other. Frictional force opposes the motion of an object and it increases when the surfaces between which it acts are rough. Lubricants are used in between the surfaces to reduce friction.**Elastic force:**This type of force is exerted by an object that is stretched or compressed. The force is proportional to the stretch or compression distance and its direction is always opposite to the deformation of the object.**Applied force:**This is an external force that is applied to an object. It can either be a push or a pull. Objects in motion come to rest due to the applied force, while the stationary objects start moving due to it.

## The Force Applied Over a Period of Time

The force applied over a period of time is called work, and it is measured in joules. Work occurs when an object is displaced by a force, and it is directly proportional to both the force applied and the distance covered. The formula for calculating work is:

Work = Force x Distance

The force can be exerted on an object in different ways. The table below shows the various forces that can be applied to an object, their definitions and units of measurement:

Force Type | Definition | Unit of Measurement |
---|---|---|

Gravitational Force | The force of attraction that exists between two objects due to their masses | Newtons (N) |

Frictional Force | The force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact with each other | Newtons (N) |

Elastic Force | The force exerted by an object that is stretched or compressed | Newtons (N) |

Applied Force | An external force that is applied to an object | Newtons (N) |

Understanding the different types of forces and how they can be applied to an object helps in determining the work done on that object over time.

## Newton’s Laws of Motion

When it comes to understanding the concept of force applied over a period of time, one must first look at Newton’s Laws of Motion. These laws govern the way objects move and interact with each other in the physical world.

**First Law:**Also known as the law of inertia, this states that objects will remain at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a force.**Second Law:**This law explains the relationship between force, mass, and acceleration. It states that the force applied to an object is equal to its mass times acceleration.**Third Law:**This law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. In other words, when one object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.

The second law is particularly relevant when discussing force applied over a period of time. It is represented mathematically as:

F = ma

Where F is the force applied, m is the mass of the object, and a is the acceleration experienced by the object. Essentially, this equation tells us that the force applied to an object is directly proportional to its mass and the acceleration experienced by that object.

To give a practical example, imagine pushing a shopping cart. The force you apply to the cart is directly related to how heavy the cart is (its mass) and how quickly you want it to go (the acceleration). If you want the cart to move quickly, you will need to apply more force over a shorter period of time. Alternatively, if you want the cart to move slowly, you can apply less force over a longer period of time.

Variable | Symbol | Units |
---|---|---|

Force | F | Newtons (N) |

Mass | m | Kilograms (kg) |

Acceleration | a | Meters per second squared (m/s²) |

Understanding Newton’s laws of motion can be incredibly useful when it comes to explaining the mechanics of everyday phenomena like throwing a ball or riding a bicycle. They also have broader applications in fields like engineering and physics, where understanding the principles of force and motion are critical to success.

## Calculating force

Force is the push or pull that one object exerts on another object. The amount of force is determined by two factors: the amount of mass and the acceleration of the object. The force acting on an object over a period of time is called impulse.

Calculating force can seem daunting at first, but it is actually quite simple. The equation for force is:

F = m * a

**F:**Force**m:**Mass**a:**Acceleration

As an example, let’s say we want to calculate the force required to push a 10 kg object at an acceleration of 5 m/s^{2}. We can simply plug these values into the equation:

F = 10 kg * 5 m/s^{2}

F = 50 Newtons

This means that 50 Newtons of force is required to push the 10 kg object at a rate of 5 m/s^{2}.

## Momentum

Momentum is a concept in physics that refers to the force applied over a period of time. It is calculated by multiplying an object’s mass by its velocity. In other words, momentum is the product of an object’s mass and its speed in a particular direction.

Momentum plays a crucial role in many physical phenomena, including collisions, explosions, and other types of interactions between particles. The greater an object’s momentum, the more force it can exert on other objects, and the more difficult it is to stop or change its direction.

## Key Characteristics of Momentum

- Momentum is a vector quantity, meaning it has both magnitude and direction.
- The momentum of an object can be changed by applying a force over a period of time.
- The law of conservation of momentum states that in a closed system, the total momentum before and after a collision or interaction remains constant.

## Applications of Momentum

Momentum has many practical applications, especially in the fields of engineering and transportation. For example, the design of cars and airplanes takes into account the momentum of these vehicles, as well as the forces required to stop or change their direction of motion.

Momentum is also important in sports, such as basketball and soccer, where players use their momentum to accelerate, stop, or change direction. Additionally, understanding the principles of momentum is essential in activities such as diving and gymnastics, where athletes must carefully control their movements to achieve optimal performance.

## Momentum Formula

The formula for calculating momentum is:

p = | m | v |

Where:

- p is momentum
- m is mass
- v is velocity or speed

This formula is used to calculate momentum in both classical and relativistic physics, but the relativistic formula is more complex and takes into account the effects of time dilation and mass-energy equivalence.

## Friction

Friction is the force that acts between two surfaces in contact with each other and opposes the motion or attempted motion of one surface across the other. It is caused due to the irregularities present on the surfaces of the two objects in contact. Friction is an important concept in physics and is an essential part of many systems and devices.

- Static Friction: This is the friction force that opposes the motion of an object that is at rest. For example, when you push a book across a table, the force of static friction will resist the motion of the book until a certain threshold is reached, and the book begins to move.
- Kinetic Friction: This is the friction force that opposes the motion of an object that is already in motion. For example, if you push a book across a table, once it starts moving, there will be kinetic friction between the book and the table that will resist the motion of the book and eventually bring it to a stop.
- Rolling Friction: This is the force that opposes the motion of a rolling object, such as a ball or a wheel. Rolling friction is generally much less than sliding friction and is the reason why wheels are used in vehicles and machines to reduce the frictional force.

Friction can have both positive and negative effects. On one hand, friction can be beneficial, such as in the case of vehicle brakes, where friction is used to slow down or stop the vehicle. On the other hand, friction can also cause wear and tear and reduce the efficiency of many systems by producing heat and energy loss.

Friction can be influenced by different factors such as the nature of the surfaces, the amount of force applied, temperature, and the presence of lubricants. By understanding the factors that influence friction, we can design systems and devices that minimize friction and maximize efficiency.

Surface | Coefficient of Friction (μ) |
---|---|

Ice on Ice | 0.01 |

Dry glass on wet glass | 0.4 |

Wood on wood | 0.25 – 0.5 |

Rubber on asphalt | 0.7 – 0.8 |

The coefficient of friction can vary widely depending on the surfaces that are in contact with each other. The table above shows the coefficient of friction for some common surface combinations.

## Elasticity

When a force is applied over a period of time, the material or object that the force is acting upon tends to deform. Elasticity is the property of a material to return to its original shape and size after the force is removed. Elasticity is a measure of the ability of a material to stretch, compress, or deform as a result of a force being applied. The amount of deformation that a material can undergo before it becomes permanently distorted or damaged is called the elastic limit.

- 1. Hooke’s Law:
- 2. Young’s Modulus:
- 3. Poisson’s Ratio:

Hooke’s law states that the deformation of a solid material is proportional to the force applied to it, as long as the force is within the material’s elastic limit. This means that if the force is doubled, the deformation will also double.

Young’s modulus is a measure of a material’s stiffness. It is the ratio of stress to strain for a material under an applied force. The higher the Young’s modulus, the stiffer the material.

Poisson’s ratio is a measure of the lateral contraction of a material when it is stretched in one dimension. It is the ratio of the strain in the lateral direction to the strain in the axial direction.

Elasticity plays an important role in engineering and material science. Understanding the elasticity of a material is crucial in designing structures that can withstand forces without permanent deformation or damage. Additionally, elasticity is essential in designing products that can be stretched or compressed for various applications. For example, rubber bands, springs, and shock absorbers rely on the elasticity of the material to function properly.

The table below shows the Young’s modulus of some common materials:

Material | Youth’s Modulus |
---|---|

Steel | 200 GPa |

Aluminum | 70 GPa |

Copper | 120 GPa |

Concrete | 30 GPa |

Wood (along grain) | 10 GPa |

In conclusion, elasticity is a property of materials that allows them to return to their original shape and size after an applied force has been removed. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio are important concepts in understanding the elasticity of materials. Engineers and material scientists make use of elasticity to design structures and products that can withstand forces and perform efficiently.

## Conservation of energy

One of the fundamental principles in physics is the conservation of energy. This principle states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but instead, it can only be transformed or transferred from one object to another. This means that the total amount of energy in a closed system remains constant over time.

**Kinetic Energy:**The energy that an object possesses due to its motion is known as kinetic energy. It can be calculated using the formula K.E.= 1/2mv^2, where m is the mass of the object and v is its velocity. The greater the mass and velocity of an object, the greater its kinetic energy.**Potential Energy:**Potential energy is the energy possessed by an object due to its position or state. It is calculated using the formula P.E.= mgh, where m is the mass, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the height of the object. An object at a higher height possesses more potential energy than the one at a lower height.**Mechanical Energy:**The sum of kinetic energy and potential energy of an object is known as its mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is conserved in a closed system if there are no external forces acting on the system.

When a force is applied over a period of time, it can do work on an object and transfer energy to it. This work can be calculated as W=Fd, where F is the force applied and d is the displacement of the object in the direction of the force. The unit of work is joule (J).

It is important to note that the work done by a force is equal to the change in mechanical energy of an object. This means that the work-energy principle, which states that the work done on an object is equal to the change in its kinetic energy, potential energy, or both, is a direct consequence of the conservation of energy.

Type of Energy | Formula |
---|---|

Kinetic Energy | K.E. = 1/2mv^2 |

Potential Energy | P.E. = mgh |

Mechanical Energy | M.E. = K.E. + P.E. |

Work | W = Fd |

The conservation of energy has many applications in daily life, from understanding how a roller coaster works to the functioning of a car engine. It is a fundamental principle that allows us to understand and predict the behavior of physical systems and is a critical concept in the study of physics.

## What Is Force Applied Over a Period of Time Called?

### 1. What is force?

Force is the measure of the push or pull of an object. It is measured in Newtons (N).

### 2. What is meant by applied force?

Applied force refers to the force that is exerted on an object to make it move or change direction.

### 3. How is force measured?

Force is measured by using a force meter, also known as a spring balance. The force meter measures the amount of force exerted on the spring inside the meter.

### 4. What is the formula for force?

The formula for force is F=ma, where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration.

### 5. What is the difference between force and pressure?

Force is the measure of the push or pull of an object, whereas pressure is the force exerted per unit area.

### 6. What is the unit for force applied over a period of time?

The unit for force applied over a period of time is N/s or Newtons per second.

### 7. What is force applied over a period of time called?

Force applied over a period of time is called power. It is measured in watts (W).

## Closing: Thanks for Reading!

We hope this article has helped you understand what force applied over a period of time is called. Remember, force is the measure of the push or pull of an object, and power is the force applied over a period of time. If you have any further questions, feel free to visit us again later. Thanks for reading!